“P” implies “Q.” This is the essence of Critical Thinking.

“P” is your hypothesis . . . your facts or your findings.

If “P” is TRUE, then your conclusion can be TRUE.

If “P” is NOT TRUE, then your conclusion can be EITHER TRUE OR NOT TRUE. It can be whatever you want it to be.

A necessary condition of a statement must be satisfied for the statement to be true. Formally, a statement P is a necessary condition of a statement Q if Q implies P, (Q⇒P).

A sufficient condition is one that, if satisfied, assures the statement’s truth. Formally, a statement P is a sufficient condition of a statement Q if P implies Q, (P⇒Q).