James Madison brings the argument of union vs disunion to a close in Essay #14, Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered.
To the critics who claim that a republic must be confined to a small territory, Madison writes that they confuse a republic with a democracy. The difference, according to Madison, is that in a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person, whereas in a republic the people govern the country through their elected representatives. Because a republic has representatives, it can extend over a large region.
Madison makes an appeal to exceptionalism – the unique sprit of Americans to try something new even though there is no historic precedent for such an ambitious endeavor. He appeals to the patriotism of citizens to create something for all mankind to follow.
Credit for the summary and analysis is given to Brittany Nelson and Christopher Higgins (second revision 09/15/2011). Weinbloom, Elizabeth ed. “The Federalist Papers Essay 14 Summary and Analysis”. GradeSaver, 30 December 2011 Web. 17 January 2019.